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{bio,medical} informatics

Saturday, November 11, 2000

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find related articles. powered by google. Stanford Medical Informatics Preprint Archive Reverse Engineering and Automatic Synthesis of Metabolic Pathways from Observed Data Using Genetic Programming
"Recent work has demonstrated that genetic programming is capable of automatically creating complex networks (such as analog electrical circuits and controllers) whose behavior is modeled by continuous-time differential equations (both linear and non-linear) and whose behavior matches prespecified output values. The concentrations of substances participating in networks of chemical reactions are also modeled by non-linear continuous-time differential equations. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to automatically create (reverse engineer) a network of chemical reactions from observed time-domain data. Genetic programming starts with observed time-domain concentrations of input substances and automatically creates both the topology of the network of chemical reactions and the rates of each reaction within the network such that the concentration of the final product of the automatically created network matches the observed time-domain data. This paper describes how genetic programming automatically created a metabolic pathway involving four chemical reactions that takes in glycerol and fatty acid as input, uses ATP as a cofactor, and produces diacyl-glycerol as its final product. In addition, this paper describes how genetic programming similarly created a metabolic pathway involving three chemical reactions for the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. Both automatically created metabolic pathways contain at least one instance of three noteworthy topological features, namely an internal feedback loop, a bifurcation point where one substance is distributed to two different reactions, and an accumulation point where one substance is accumulated from two sources."
find related articles. powered by google. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation A Comparison of Linear Genetic Programming and Neural Networks in Medical Data Mining
"We apply linear genetic programming to several diagnosis problems in medicine. An efficient algorithm is presented that eliminates intron code in linear genetic programs. This results in a significant speedup which is especially interesting when operating with complex datasets as they are occuring in real-world applications like medicine. We compare our results to those obtained with neural networks and argue that genetic programming is able to show similar performance in classification and generalization even within a relatively small number of generations."

find related articles. powered by google. Generation5 Introduction to Genetic Algorithms
"Most symbolic AI systems are very static. Most of them can usually only solve one given specific problem, since their architecture was designed for whatever that specific problem was in the first place. Thus, if the given problem were somehow to be changed, these systems could have a hard time adapting to them, since the algorithm that would originally arrive to the solution may be either incorrect or less efficient. Genetic algorithms (or GA) were created to combat these problems. They are basically algorithms based on natural biological evolution. The architecture of systems that implement genetic algorithms (or GA) are more able to adapt to a wide range of problems. A GA functions by generating a large set of possible solutions to a given problem. It then evaluates each of those solutions, and decides on a "fitness level" (you may recall the phrase: "survival of the fittest") for each solution set. These solutions then breed new solutions. The parent solutions that were more "fit" are more likely to reproduce, while those that were less "fit" are more unlikely to do so. In essence, solutions are evolved over time. This way you evolve your search space scope to a point where you can find the solution. Genetic algorithms can be incredibly efficient if programmed correctly."

[ rhetoric ]

Bioinformatics will be at the core of biology in the 21st century. In fields ranging from structural biology to genomics to biomedical imaging, ready access to data and analytical tools are fundamentally changing the way investigators in the life sciences conduct research and approach problems. Complex, computationally intensive biological problems are now being addressed and promise to significantly advance our understanding of biology and medicine. No biological discipline will be unaffected by these technological breakthroughs.


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